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Krvne grupe – znate li koja je Vaša? | Alea dr.Kandić
+387 33 538 100 / +387 61 358 563 kandic@bih.net.ba

Krvne grupe su nasljedne i nepromjenjive biološke karakteristike koje se prenose sa roditelja na djecu. Bazirane su na prisustvu ili nedostatku naslijeđene antigenske supstance na površini crvenih krvnih zrnaca (eritrocita). Ti antigeni mogu biti proteini, ugljikohidrati, glikoproteini ili glikolipidi.

Vjerovatno svi poznajemo 4 vrste krvnih grupa – A, B, 0 i AB , ali ove navedene krvne grupe su samo jedan od 31 sistema krvnih grupa.

AB0 sistem krvnih grupa

Najpoznatiji sistem kojeg nalazimo u transfuzijskoj medicina je sistem AB0, čiji je i najveći značaj u praksi. Ustanovljen je davne 1900. godine od strane austrijskog biologa i doktora medicine Karla Landsteiner-a. Za otkriće i klasifikaciju krvnih grupa, prema prepoznavanju prisutnosti aglutinacije u krvi, 1930. godine je primio Nobelovu nagradu.

Termin krvna grupa u užem smislu podrazumijeva antigene koji se nalaze na površini crvenih krvnih zrnaca (eritrocita), koji se, također, nalaze i u većini drugih tjelesnih izlučevina poput pljuvačke, znoja ili suza.

U ljudskoj populaciji najšire je zastupljena krvna grupa A, zatim 0, a slijede ih B i najmanje zastupljena AB krvna grupa. U AB0 sistemu postoje dva antigena: A i B antigeni, koji nastaju djelovanjem dva sistema gena koji se nalaze na raznim hromosomima. Najveći značaj podudarnosti i kompatibilnosti krvnih grupa je prilikom transfuzije krvi darivaoca primaocu. Da bi se izvršila uspješna transfuzija krvi, krvna grupa darivaoca i primaoca moraju biti kompatibilne.

U sastavu krvne plazme osoba krvne grupe A ,B, i 0 su uvijek prisutna anti-A i anti-B antitijela, koji su po sastavu globulini (IgM za A i B i IgG za 0 grupu). Ukoliko bi se primaocu A, B ili 0 krvne grupe transfundirala (darivala) inkompatibilna krv, došlo bi do reakcije brzog razaranja eritrocita unutar krvnih žila, sa mogućim smrtonosnim ishodom.

U plazmi osobe krvne grupe AB nema antitijela. To znači da su osobe AB krvne grupe univerzalni primatelji krvi, jer u krvi nemaju antitijela koja bi po primljenoj transfuziji drugih krvnih grupa izazvala razaranje eritrocita. Osobe 0 krvne grupe, nasuprot tome, su univerzalni darivaoci jer na njihovim eritrocitima nema A ili B antigena.

Rh (Rhesus) sistem krvnih grupa

Pored pomenute podjele na AB0 grupe, postoji i Rhesus (rezus) sistem krvnih grupa. Ime ovog sistema krvnih grupa dolazi od vrste majmuna Macacus rhesus, jer je na njihovoj vrsti prva reakcija antigen – antitijelo detektovana putem eksperimenta.

Rh sistem klasificira krv kao Rh pozitivnu (Rh+) ili Rh negativnu (Rh-), što zavisi od prisutnosti ili odsustva Rh antitijela u krvi. Osobe koje posjeduju krv sa pozitivnim Rh-faktorom su u stanju primiti krv sa negativnim Rh-faktorom, ali obrnuta situacija nije moguća.

Razumijevanje Rh-faktora izuzetno je značajno u trudnoći. Vezano je za pojavu hemolitske bolesti fetusa i novorođenčeta, koja se javlja uslijed Rh-krvne nekompatibilnosti majke i djeteta.

Potencijalni problem, dakle, može nastati ukoliko žena koja ima Rh-negativnu krv nosi dijete koje ima Rh-pozitivnu, što uzrokuje Rh- nekompatibilnost. Za vrijeme trudnoće ili poroda Rh-pozitivna krv djeteta može se pomiješati s Rh-negativnom krvi majke, nakon čega imunološki sistem majke počinje proizvoditi antitijela.

Tako majčin imunološki sistem napada crvene krvne stanice djeteta. Iz tog razloga se obično trudnicama s Rh-negativnom krvi preventivno daje Rh-imunoglobulin, koji će spriječiti pojavu pojavu hemolitičke bolesti novorođenčeta.

Znate li kojoj krvnoj grupi Vi pripadate? Ukoliko još ne znate, zakažite termin za testiranje putem telefona ? 033 538 100.

U našoj laboratoriji vršimo sve vrste analiza i dijagnostika, među kojima i usluge testiranja krvi.